Pseudarthrosis/ Non-Union Failed/ Previous Thoracic Surgery
Pseudarthrosis is an unhealed broken bone, also known as nonunion. Usually, damaged or broken bones heal over time by forming new bone tissue connecting the damaged pieces of the bone. However, if the damaged bone fails to heal then it is called ‘nonunion’ or ‘pseudarthrosis’. Pseudarthrosis refers to the formation of a false bone due to improper healing.
Pseudarthrosis or Nonunion due to failed or previous thoracic surgery
The poor healing of spinal bones or vertebrae is usually due to the failure of spine surgery (e.g. thoracic fusion) that leads to the formation of a nonunion. Usually, post-surgery, damaged thoracic bones heal by forming new bone tissue between the spinal bones. However, if the thoracic bone fails to heal, then it results in the formation of a nonunion or pseudarthrosis. The reason is perhaps due to the unhealed tissues that do not heal bone well, inadequate bone placed into the fusion area, excessive motion across the fusion area limiting healing, infection, and suboptimal alignment or fusion technique.
Spine fusion surgery primarily includes immobilization of the thoracic bones after proper alignment, which initiates the natural healing process and provides stability to the bone. Immobilization includes placing casts, braces, metal plates or screws, intra medullary nails or external fixators to hold the thoracic bones in position until they heal.
Nonunion is a serious complication of spinal fusion surgery. It occurs when the thoracic bones detach to such an extent that the stability and the blood flow of the bone are impaired.
Risk factors of nonunion include:
- Smoking or tobacco use
Medications such as Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID’s)
Poor diet (low protein, calcium, vitamin C, and vitamin D)
Controlling risk factors can prevent the chance of developing a nonunion.
Nonunion may cause pain in the back or at the surgical site, lasting for months or years. It can be a continuous pain or associated with spine movements.
Your physician diagnoses nonunion based on the findings such as pain at the surgical site, persistent gap with no bone over the surgical site, or inadequate or no progress in bone healing. Physician confirms the nonunion diagnosis after checking the damaged thoracic bone and its progress of healing using imaging studies such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan. In rare cases, blood tests can help determine the cause of nonunion formation, such as with infection and conditions that slow bone healing such as diabetes and anemia.
Treatment of nonunion comprises both non-surgical and surgical approaches, among which the physician decides the appropriate one based on your condition.
The most common non-surgical treatment includes using a bone stimulator, a small device that delivers ultrasonic or pulsed electromagnetic waves, to stimulate healing process. To obtain good results, the bone stimulator should be used daily for at least 20 minutes to an hour.
Surgical approach is recommended only if non-surgical approaches fail to show improvement. The available surgical option includes bone graft or bone graft substitute.
Bone graft or bone graft substitute: Bone graft or its substitute helps in escalating the healing process. Bone graft provides fresh bone cells and the naturally occurring chemicals that play an important role in the process of bone healing. Allograft (cadaver bone) avoids collection of bone from patients and avoids pain, but has a risk of infection. Bone graft substitute unlike bone graft does not provide fresh bone cells for normal healing; however it does contain chemicals that the body needs to make bone.
Bone graft or graft substitute alone does not provide stability to the surgical site. Other surgical procedures such as internal fixation and external fixation may be needed to provide stability to the surgical site.